Skip to main content

Federal system or Federalism.

The term 'Federation' is derived from a Latin word "foedus" which means 'Treaty' or 'agreement'. Thus a federation is a new state (political system) which is formed through a Treaty or an agreement between the various units. the units of a federation are known by various names like States (as in US) or cantons (as in Switzerland) or provinces (as in Canada) or Republic (as in Russia).

In simple words federal system can be defined as a kind of government into a country which has the separated power between the union or states.

For example states can control the police of there state, but not the army of the country,
While the army can be controlled by the union or centre, not by the state.
The Constitution of india has adopted the federal system which means, the power between the centre or states are separated,
In terms of the
 1. Union list
 2. States list
 3. Concurrent list

  Political scientists classified government into unitary and Federal on the basis of the nature of relations between the national government and the regional government. by definition, a unitary government is one in which all the powers are vested in the national government and the regional government, if at all exist, derive their authority from the national government. A  Federal government on the other hand is one in which power are divided between the national government, and the regional governments by the constitution itself and both operate in their respective jurisdiction independently.

 Britain, France, Japan, China, Italy, Belgium, Norway, Sweden, Spain and so on have the unitary model of government. while the US, Switzerland, Australia, Canada, Russia, Brazil, Argentina and so on have the federal model of government. in a federal model the national government is known as the Federal government or the central government for the union government and the regional government is known as the State government or the provincial government.


Popular posts from this blog

Features of the federal system in India

The federal features of the constitution of india are explained below. 1. Dual polity. 2. Written constitution. 3. Division of powers. 4. Supremacy of the constitution. 5. Rigid constitution. 6. Independent judiciary. 7. Bicameralism. Dual polity The constitution establishes a dual polity consisting the Union at the centre and state at the Periphery. each is endowed with Sovereign power to be exercised in the field assigned to them respectively by the constitution. the union government deals with the matters of national importance like defence, Foreign Affairs, currency, communication and so on. the state governments on the other hand look after the matters of regional and local importance like public order, agriculture, health, local government and so on. Written constitution The constitution is not only a written document but also the lengthiest constitution of the world. originally, it contained a Preamble, 395 articles divided into 22 parts and 8 schedules. at

Features of the Parliamentary Government

The parliamentary government is a type of democratic government, in which the government governs the nation from the parliament. The following features of the Parliament government. 1. Nominal and real executives. 2. Majority party rule. 3. Political homogeneity. 4. Collective responsibility. 5. Double membership. 6. Leadership of the Prime minister. 7. Dissolution of the Lower house. 8. Secrecy. Nominal and real executives. It is the first feature of the parliamentary government in which the president is the nominal executive executive. ( de jure executive or the titural executive ), while the Prime Minister is the real executive ( de facto executive ). Thus the president is head of the state, while the prime minister is head of the government, according to the Constitution of india (article-74) provides for a Council of Ministers headed by the prime minister, to aid and advise the president in the exercise of his functions. The advise so tendered is binding on the

Demerits of the Parliamentary system

The parliamentary system of government has the following demerits. 1. Unstable government. 2. No continuity of policies. 3. Dictatorship of the cabinet. 4. Against separation of powers. 5. Government by amateurs. Unstable government the Parliament system does not provide a stable government. there is no guarantee that the government can survive its tenure. the ministers depend on the mercy of the majority legislators for their continuity and survival in office. a no-confidence motion or political defection or evils of multiparty coalition can make the government unstable. the government headed by Morarji Desai, Charan Singh, VP Singh, Chandra shekhar, Dev Goda and I K Gujral are some such examples. No continuity of policies the parliamentary system is not conducted for the formulation and implementation of Long Term Policies. this is due to the uncertainty of the tenure of the government. a change in the ruling party is usually followed by changes in the policy of t